Aug 08, 2022  
Undergraduate Catalog 2021-2022 
    
Undergraduate Catalog 2021-2022 Archived Catalog

Course Descriptions


Course offerings are numbered utilizing four digits, the first indicating college year and the last the number of semester hours credit.

Courses numbered 0001 to 0999 are considered remedial; hours do not count toward minimum requirements for graduation.

Courses numbered 3001 to 4999 fulfill requirements for upper-division credits. Most of these courses have specified prerequisites.

Courses numbered 5000 to 8999 fulfill requirements for graduate credit. Most of these courses have specified prerequisites.

A prerequisite course must have been completed with an acceptable passing grade before enrollment in the given course is permitted.

A corequisite is a course in which a student must be enrolled and satisfactorily participating concurrently with the given course.

 

Accounting

  
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    ATG 3513 Accounting for Managers

    Three hours (Online)
    This course covers the concepts and principles of corporate accounting and the preparation of financial reports used by managers. Topics covered include stockholder’s equity, long-term liabilities, the statement of cash flows, and financial ratio analysis. It will also include an introduction to cost accounting, which is the use of internal reporting of accounting data for planning and controlling operations and policy making.

    Offered online Fall B and Spring B terms

  
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    ATG 3990 Accounting Internship

    No credit (On Campus)
    Supervised learning involving field experience in a business working with the area of accounting. Arrangements for taking the course must be made with the internship coordinator prior to the work being completed. This course is required for all College of Business majors for graduation and is available only to those students who are majoring in a degree program of the College of Business. Same as BUS 3990 

    Prerequisite: ATG 3113  
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
  
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    ATG 4131 Selected Topics

    One hour (On Campus)
    A course offering students opportunities to study subjects of special interest. May be offered on a group basis in a classroom setting or as independent study under faculty supervision.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    ATG 4132 Selected Topics

    Two hours (On Campus)
    A course offering students opportunities to study subjects of special interest. May be offered on a group basis in a classroom setting or as independent study under faculty supervision.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    ATG 4133 Selected Topics

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A course offering students opportunities to study subjects of special interest. May be offered on a group basis in a classroom setting or as independent study under faculty supervision.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    ATG 4153 Auditing and Attestation Services

    Three hours (On Campus)
    Study of auditing standards, professional conduct, legal liability of auditors, internal control, sampling, the nature of evidence, and auditing techniques necessary for an independent auditor to render an opinion on a company’s financial statements.

    Prerequisites: ATG 3103  and BUS 2193 
    Offered on campus Spring semester (even-numbered years)

Bible

  
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    BBL 1013 Old Testament Survey

    Three hours (On Campus and Online)
    A brief introduction to the history and message of the Old Testament. A general survey of the overall content of each book and certain significant themes stressing relevance to Christian living.

    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
    Offered online Fall A, Spring A, and Summer A terms

  
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    BBL 1023 New Testament Survey

    Three hours (On Campus and Online)
    An introduction to the history and message of the New Testament. The class provides an academic overview of each book, its context and significant themes, with challenges and applications to Christian faith and discipleship.

    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
    Offered online Fall B, Spring B, and Summer B terms

  
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    BBL 1083 Honors: Old Testament Survey

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A comprehensive introduction to the study of the Old Testament. The course introduces the student to the history and theology of the Old Testament, basic hermeneutical issues and book content, as well as relevant application to faith and life.

    Prerequisite: admission to Honors Program or Honors Committee approval
    Offered on campus Fall semester
  
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    BBL 1093 Honors: New Testament Survey

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A comprehensive introduction to the history and message of the New Testament. The class provides an academic overview of the canonical history and reliability of the New Testament documents as well as the historical and cultural background, major themes, and issues for each book including the challenges and applications to Christian faith and discipleship.

    Prerequisite: admission to Honors Program or Honors Committee approval
    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
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    BBL 1513 Biblical Language Tools I

    Three hours (On Campus)
    This course will train students to use the most valuable reference tools indexed in Koine Greek, without expecting that student will necessarily learn to read the language. These tools will include concordances and dictionaries indexed in Greek. Students will also learn enough grammar to follow the grammatical arguments made in technical commentaries based on the Greek text. They will also be exposed to enough text criticism to be able to explain the text critical footnotes that appear in many translations and to understand the text critical arguments in technical commentaries. They will not be expected to do textual criticism. Students who want to read the Greek New Testament should take BBL 2513  and BBL 2523 .

    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 1523 Biblical Language Tools II

    Three hours (On Campus)
    This course will build on BBL 1513 by applying all the resources and skills learned in that course to sustained passages of the Greek New Testament (and at the instructor’s option, Greek translations of the Old Testament). Finally, Biblical Language Tools II will introduce the Hebrew Alphabet and identify for students the Hebrew tools similar to the Greek tools used in BBL 1513 . Interested and ambitious students will then be able to cultivate these same skills with Hebrew resources on their own. Students who want to read the Greek New Testament should take BBL 2513  and BBL 2523 .

    Prerequisite: BBL 1513  
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 2013 Essentials of Evangelical Theology

    Three hours (On Campus and Online)
    Essentials of Evangelical Theology challenges students to examine and explore together Christianity’s essential doctrines by introducing them to theology’s historical context and helping them practice theology as a life-long response to God’s call to live for Christ.

    Prerequisites: BBL 1013  or BBL 1083 , and BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
    Offered online Fall A, Spring A, and Summer A terms

  
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    BBL 2022 Essentials of Christian Formation

    Two hours (On Campus and Online)
    Essentials of Christian Formation challenges students to embody their faith while assessing God’s call to live for Christ through assignments designed to develop lifelong Christian spiritual practices and habits that help them to love God and others.

    Prerequisites: BBL 1013  or BBL 1083 , and BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
    Offered online Fall B, Spring B, and Summer B terms

  
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    BBL 2043 Essentials of Christian Formation: Study Abroad

    Three hours (Study Abroad)
    Essentials of Christian Formation challenges students to embody their faith while assessing God’s call to live for Christ through assignments designed to develop lifelong Christian spiritual practices and habits that help them to love God and others. Taught only on study abroad trips. Meets the BBL 2013 Essentials of Christian Formation requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisites: BBL 1013  or BBL 1083 , and BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on study abroad trips
  
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    BBL 2083 Honors: Integrated Theology I

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A six-hour course sequence studying the development of Christian faith and practice from the early Christian centuries down to the present. The course will be historical, in that the faith and practice of the Christian tradition will be studied in specific cultural and historical contexts and will also be theological, tracing the development of ideas and how they play themselves out in the practice of Christian faith. In addition, the course will present a brief survey of Islamic faith and practice under the assumption that Christian faith and practice is best understood when it is seen in the light of competing alternatives. At critical points throughout the study, similarities and differences in how a specifically Christian approach to theology and practice will be discussed in light of the theology and practice of Islam. The focus of the course is on primary sources.

    Prerequisites: admission to Honors Program or Honors Committee approval, junior standing, EGL 1023  or EGL 1093 , BBL 1013  or BBL 1083 , and BBL 1023  or BBL 1093 .
    Offered on campus Fall semester (odd-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 2093 Honors: Integrated Theology II

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A six-hour course sequence studying the development of Christian faith and practice from the early Christian centuries down to the present. The course will be historical, in that the faith and practice of the Christian tradition will be studied in specific cultural and historical contexts and will also be theological, tracing the development of ideas and how they play themselves out in the practice of Christian faith. In addition, the course will present a brief survey of Islamic faith and practice under the assumption that Christian faith and practice is best understood when it is seen in the light of competing alternatives. At critical points throughout the study, similarities and differences in how a specifically Christian approach to theology and practice will be discussed in light of the theology and practice of Islam. The focus of the course is on primary sources.

    Prerequisite: BBL 2083 
    Offered on campus Spring semester (even-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 2513 Elementary New Testament Greek I

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A study of elementary Greek grammar and basic vocabulary with practice in translation of sentences from Greek to English. BBL 2523  includes translation from the epistles of John from the Greek.

    Offered on campus Fall semester (odd-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 2523 Elementary New Testament Greek II

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A study of elementary Greek grammar and basic vocabulary with practice in translation of sentences from Greek to English. BBL 2523 includes translation from the epistles of John from the Greek.

    Prerequisite: BBL 2513 
    Offered on campus Spring semester (even-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 3353 Theology of Worship

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A historical and theological investigation of the development of corporate worship emphasizing applicable Hebrew and Christian scripture. Liturgical history is examined, including the dynamics of music, sacred space, and symbols and icons from the Early Church to the contemporary emergent Church.

    Prerequisites: BBL 1013  or BBL 1083 , and BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus Fall semester (odd-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 3363 History of Christianity

    Three hours (On Campus)
    The course offers an in-depth exploration of a selected period in the history of Christianity (ranging from the early church to modern global Christianity), focusing on key questions and issues. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Offered on campus Fall semester
  
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    BBL 3373 The Church in a Global Context

    Three hours (On Campus)
    This interdisciplinary course will examine the theological, philosophical and anthropological diversity of Christian expression in the northern and southern hemispheres as expressed through different ecclesial traditions and informed by various cultural and historical contexts.

    Prerequisite: BBL 2013 
    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
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    BBL 3413 New Testament Book Study: The Gospel of John

    Three hours (On Campus)
    The course offers a critical and theological study of John’s Gospel, addressing its composition, narrative, literary features, theology, and relation to the Synoptic Gospels and Johannine Letters, and the context-social, political, and religious-in which it was written. Special focus is placed on major topics in the interpretation and reception of John’s Gospel through the ages, including Christology, signs, the Johannine community, and the Gospel’s perspective on Judaism. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3423 New Testament Book Study: The Synoptic Gospels

    Three hours (On Campus)
    The course offers a critical and theological introduction to the study of the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke), with particular emphasis on their interrelations and a more detailed exploration of one of the Synoptics. The more detailed study addresses the composition, narrative, literary features and theology of the selected book and explores the context-social, political and religious-in which it was written. Special focus is placed on major topics in the selected Gospel’s interpretation and reception through the ages. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3433 New Testament Book Study: The Gospel of Luke and The Acts of the Apostles

    Three hours (On Campus)
    An analysis of Luke and Acts. Emphases include the literary techniques, historical setting and message of the books. Students are exposed to critical issues related to the authorship, sources, dating and audience of these books. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3443 New Testament Book Study: The Letters of Paul

    Three hours (On Campus)
    The course offers a critical and theological introduction to the letters of Paul and a more detailed exploration of one of Paul’s letters. The course addresses major issues in the investigation of Paul’s letters, life, and thought, while the more detailed study focuses on the composition, literary features and theology of the selected book, and explores the context-social, political and religious-in which it was written. Special focus is placed on major topics in the interpretation and reception of Paul’s letters through the ages. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3453 New Testament Book Study: Hebrews

    Three hours (On Campus)
    The course offers a critical and theological study of the Letter to the Hebrews addressing its composition, literary features and theology, and the context-social, political and religious-in which it was written. Special focus is placed on major topics in the interpretation and reception of Hebrews through the ages, including canonical status and relation to the Pauline corpus, warning passages, influence of Platonism and the issue of Torah observance among early followers of Jesus. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3463 New Testament Book Study: The Book of Revelation

    Three hours (On Campus)
    An in-depth analysis of the book of Revelation. Special emphasis is placed on major hermeneutical approaches to the book, as well as study of its contents, original contexts, missional implications and eschatological hope. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3473 New Testament Book Study: Parables of Jesus

    Three hours (On Campus)
    The course provides a detailed exploration of the parables of Jesus in their historical and literary contexts. Particular attention will be paid to different interpretive approaches, the relationship between parable and allegory, and the parables’ diverse reception history through the centuries in various contexts and cultures. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1023  or BBL 1093  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3513 Syntax of New Testament Greek I

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A study of the structure of the Greek language accomplished by 1) reading sustained passages in Koine Greek and 2) understanding the syntactical functions which occur in them.

    Prerequisite: BBL 2523  or equivalent
    Offered on campus Fall semester (even-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 3523 Syntax of New Testament Greek II

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A study of the structure of the Greek language accomplished by 1) reading sustained passages in Koine Greek and 2) understanding the syntactical functions which occur in them.

    Prerequisite: BBL 3513  or equivalent
    Offered on campus Spring semester (odd-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 3583 Perspectives on the World Christian Movement

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A comprehensive 15-week course taught by outstanding teachers, expert speakers, missionaries, and Bible scholars, designed to illumine God’s plan for reaching people throughout the world. As current and past methods are examined, students are given opportunity to consider their personal roles in His work. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
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    BBL 3613 Old Testament Book Study: The Pentateuch

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A detailed study of a book, corpus or theme of the Pentateuch, emphasizing the acquisition of skills and practice in the task of Old Testament interpretation. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1013  or BBL 1083  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3623 Old Testament Book Study: Historical Books of the Old Testament

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A detailed study of a book, corpus or theme of the Historical Books of the Old Testament, emphasizing the acquisition of skills and practice in the task of Old Testament interpretation. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1013  or BBL 1083  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3633 Old Testament Book Study: Old Testament Poetry and Wisdom

    Three hours (On Campus)
     A detailed study of a book, corpus or theme of the Old Testament Poetry and Wisdom books, emphasizing the acquisition of skills and practice in the task of Old Testament interpretation. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1013  or BBL 1083  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3663 Old Testament Book Study: Prophets

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A detailed study of a book, corpus or theme of the Old Testament Prophets, emphasizing the acquisition of skills and practice in the task of Old Testament interpretation. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Prerequisite: BBL 1013  or BBL 1083  
    Offered on campus on a rotating basis
  
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    BBL 3713 Elementary Biblical Hebrew I

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A study of elementary Biblical Hebrew grammar and basic vocabulary with some limited conversational drill.

    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 3723 Elementary Biblical Hebrew II

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A study of elementary Biblical Hebrew grammar and basic vocabulary with some limited conversational drill.

    Prerequisite: BBL 3713 
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4433 Christian Apologetics

    Three hours (On Campus)
    An introduction to a major topic in the philosophy of religion, e.g., arguments for and against the existence of God, the problem of evil, or the relationship between God and morality. Students should be able to give an adequate defense of the Christian faith by the end of the semester. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum. Same as RPH 4433 

    Offered on campus Fall semester (odd-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 4453 Art and Archaeology of Jordan

    Three hours (Jordan Studies)
    This course is an introduction to the art and archaeology of Jordan from the Neolithic period up to the present. A major component of this course will be participation in the archaeological excavation at Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan and travel to archaeological sites and museums in Jordan and other countries in the Middle East through John Brown University’s Jordan Summer Studies Program. Meets the Arts and Humanities requirement of the Core Curriculum.

    Offered in Jordan Summer semester as part of Jordan Studies
  
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    BBL 4473 Seminar in Biblical Studies

    Three hours (On Campus)
    An advanced study of a particular issue related to Biblical Studies. Potential topics include critical issues in a book of the Old or New Testament or a current trend in Biblical studies or hermeneutics. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus Spring semester (odd-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 4481 Selected Topics

    One hour (On Campus)
    Topics are chosen from some area of Biblical Studies (Old Testament, New Testament, Biblical History, or Theology). The course affords an opportunity for the student to do independent study and research under the supervision of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4482 Selected Topics

    Two hours (On Campus)
    Topics are chosen from some area of Biblical Studies (Old Testament, New Testament, Biblical History, or Theology). The course affords an opportunity for the student to do independent study and research under the supervision of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4483 Selected Topics

    Three hours (On Campus)
    Topics are chosen from some area of Biblical Studies (Old Testament, New Testament, Biblical History, or Theology). The course affords an opportunity for the student to do independent study and research under the supervision of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4493 Seminar in Theological Studies

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A course designed to develop the student’s ability to analyze and explain theological texts through research, discussion, and presentation of papers. A particular theologian, movement, or topic from the history of Christian theology typically serves as the focus of evaluation. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Prerequisites: BBL 2013  and junior standing
    Offered on campus Spring semester (even-numbered years)
  
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    BBL 4512 Greek Readings and Exegesis

    Two hours (On Campus)
    Readings from books of the Greek New Testament and/or selected readings from Jewish or early Christian texts in Greek. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Prerequisite: BBL 3523  or equivalent
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4581 Selected Topics: New Testament Greek

    One hour (On Campus)
    Topics chosen from some area of New Testament Greek. The student may also do independent study and research under the direction of the instructor. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Prerequisite: BBL 3523  
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4582 Selected Topics: New Testament Greek

    Two hours (On Campus)
    Topics chosen from some area of New Testament Greek. The student may also do independent study and research under the direction of the instructor. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Prerequisite: BBL 3523  
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4583 Selected Topics: New Testament Greek

    Three hours (On Campus)
    Topics chosen from some area of New Testament Greek. The student may also do independent study and research under the direction of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: BBL 3523  
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4713 Syntax of Biblical Hebrew I

    Three hours (On Campus)
    An intermediate level study of Hebrew grammar and syntax. Expanded vocabulary and translation from Hebrew to English and English to Hebrew are also emphasized.

    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BBL 4723 Syntax of Biblical Hebrew II

    Three hours (On Campus)
    An intermediate level study of Hebrew grammar and syntax. Expanded vocabulary and translation from Hebrew to English and English to Hebrew are also emphasized.

    Prerequisite: BBL 4713 
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request

Biology

  
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    BIO 1003 Biological Science

    Three hours (On Campus and Online)
    An introductory survey of biology course designed for liberal arts students. Topics addressed include the nature of science, cellular processes, genetics, biotechnology, evolution, biodiversity, ecology, and the integration of science and Christianity. Laboratory experiences emphasize scientific investigations and biological processes. Two hours  lecture-discussion and one two-hour laboratory per week. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum.  An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Corequisite: BIO 1003L
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
    Offered online Fall A and Summer A terms

  
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    BIO 1093 Honors: Biological Science

    Three hours (On Campus)
    An introductory survey of biology course designed for liberal arts students admitted to the Honors Program. Topics addressed include the nature of science, cellular processes, genetics, evolution, biodiversity, and ecology. Features that distinguish this course from the non-honors Biological Science course (BIO 1003) include a bioethics group project, a philosophically oriented treatment of science and Christianity using primary texts, and a creative final project. Lab and lecture are combined into three 75-minute class sessions per week. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: admission to Honors Program or Honors Committee approval
    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
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    BIO 1124 Cell Biology

    Four hours (On Campus)
    This course is an introduction to the study of living systems, beginning with the molecules of life and progressing to the cellular level of organization. Students are exposed to numerous topics including the nature of science, experimental design and inquiry, biochemistry, cell structure, energy processing, genetics, molecular biology, and the integration of the Christian faith and science. Laboratory exercises reinforce concepts and biological processes discussed in the lecture. This course is particularly designed for students majoring in Biology, Biochemistry, Nursing, or Kinesiology. Three hours lecture-discussion and one two-hour laboratory per week. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Corequisite: BIO 1124L
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
  
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    BIO 1144 Plant and Animal Diversity

    Four hours (On Campus)
    An introduction to the study of the plant and animal kingdoms, emphasizing adaptive aspects of anatomy, physiology, classification and relationships within plants and animals. Major taxa in each kingdom will be emphasized. Three hours lecture-discussion and one two-hour laboratory per week. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Corequisite: BIO 1144L
    Offered on campus Fall semester
  
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    BIO 2174 Genetics

    Four hours (On Campus)
    A study of basic concepts in transmission genetics and molecular genetics with an introduction to population genetics. Laboratory exercises illustrate principles of inheritance in selected model organisms. Three hours lecture-discussion and one three-hour laboratory per week. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: BIO 1124  
    Corequisite: BIO 2174L
    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
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    BIO 2184 Ecology and Evolution

    Four hours (On Campus)
    A study of the principles of ecology and evolution with an emphasis on the interrelationships between organisms and their biotic and abiotic environments. The concepts and theoretical basis of evolution will be examined, including the processes that drive natural selection, population dynamics, and mechanisms of genetic variation. Three hours lecture-discussion and one two-hour laboratory per week. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: BIO 1144  
    Corequisite: BIO 2184L
    Offered on campus Fall semester
  
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    BIO 2334 Fundamentals of Microbiology

    Four hours (On Campus)
    An introduction to the principles of microbiology with an emphasis on microorganisms that are important for health and disease in humans. Topics will include structure, function, metabolism, pathology, epidemiology, and diagnostic procedures for identification. Methods for prevention and control of microbial disease will be covered along with a basic understanding of the immune system. This course will not fulfill requirements for the Biology major or minor. Three hours lecture/discussion and one two-hour laboratory per week. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: BIO 1124  
    Corequisite: BIO 2334L
    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
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    BIO 2514 Anatomy and Physiology I

    Four hours (On Campus)
    This is the first of a two-semester sequence studying the anatomy and physiology of human systems. Topics of study include the structure and function of tissues, the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, and endocrine systems. The laboratory component includes microscopic studies, dissection, the use of models, and the study of physiological processes via experimentation. Three hours lecture-discussion and 1 two-hour laboratory per week. This course will not fulfill requirements for the Biology major or minor. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Corequisite: BIO 2514L
    Prerequisite or corequisite: BIO 1124  
    Offered on campus Fall semester
  
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    BIO 2524 Anatomy and Physiology II

    Four hours (On Campus)
    This is the second of a two-semester sequence studying the anatomy and physiology of human systems. Topics of study include the structure and function of the cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive, and reproductive systems. The laboratory component includes microscopic studies, dissection, the use of models, and the study of physiological processes via experimentation. Three hours lecture-discussion and one two-hour laboratory per week. This course will not fulfill requirements for the Biology major or minor. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: BIO 2514  
    Corequisite: BIO 2524L
    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
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    BIO 3101 Biology Teaching Practicum

    One hour (On Campus)
    Practical experience in lab preparation and instruction. Three hours per week. May be repeated once for credit.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus upon sufficient request
  
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    BIO 3144 Marine Biology

    Four hours (On Campus)
    A study of the biological, chemical, and physical processes that promote and maintain marine life, establishing links between marine systems, biological processes, and human activity. The laboratory portion of the course consists of an intensive spring-break study trip to the Florida Keys.  An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: BIO 1144  
    Corequisite: BIO 3144L
    Offered on campus Spring semester (even-numbered years)
  
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    BIO 3174 Molecular Cell Biology

    Four hours (On Campus)
    An advanced study of structure-function relationships in eukaryotic cells. Emphasis on cell membranes, organelles, protein targeting, secretory pathway, bioenergetics, cytoskeleton, and cell motility. Regulation of the cell cycle, cell signaling, and recognition/adhesion are also examined, particularly as they relate to malignancy. Labs focus on experimental studies of cellular structure and function using techniques of modern cell and molecular biology. Three hours lecture-discussion and one three-hour laboratory per week. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1124  and CHM 1134  
    Corequisite: BIO 3174L
    Offered on campus Fall semester
  
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    BIO 3201 Cadaver Dissection

    One hour (On Campus)
    A practical study designed for transfer students who have successfully completed a college-level anatomy course that lacked cadaver dissection. Offered concurrently with the BIO 3514  laboratory. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Offered on campus Fall semester
  
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    BIO 3302 Field Experience

    Two hours (On Campus)
    Job shadowing experience in a health-related profession as approved by the Biology Department. A journal and final paper are required based on a minimum of 40 hours of shadowing.  Does not fulfill upper-division Biology elective requirements for the Biology major.

    Prerequisites: junior standing and instructor consent
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
  
  •  

    BIO 3314 Molecular Genetics

    Four hours (On Campus)
    A study of the molecules involved in heredity with an emphasis on regulatory processes. Topics include: DNA/RNA structure and topology, genome organization, chromatin structure, epigenetic modifications, mutations, DNA replication and repair, recombination, transcription, RNA processing, and protein translation. Genomic applications to modern medicine and studies of evolution are also explored. Lab experiments utilize several methods of recombinant DNA technology and bioinformatic analyses. Three hours lecture-discussion and one three-hour laboratory per week. An additional fee may be associated with this course. Same as CHM 3174 

    Prerequisite: BIO 2174  or CHM 3164  
    Corequisite: BIO 3314L
    Offered on campus Spring semester (odd-numbered years)
  
  •  

    BIO 3334 Microbiology

    Four hours (On Campus)
    A study of the structure, function, control, physiology, and classification of prokaryotes and viruses. Two hours lecture and 2 two-hour laboratories per week. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1124  and either CHM 1124  or CHM 1014  
    Corequisite: BIO 3334L
    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
  •  

    BIO 3514 Human Anatomy

    Four hours (On Campus)
    Description and discussion of basic tissues, organs, and organ systems of the human. The laboratory is a concentrated study of histology and gross human anatomic structure. Analysis of prepared slides, skeletal structures, and cadaver dissection are included. Three hours lecture-discussion and one three-hour laboratory per week. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: BIO 1124  
    Corequisite: BIO 3514L
    Offered on campus Fall semester
  
  •  

    BIO 3524 Human Physiology

    Four hours (On Campus)
    A detailed study of the basic human physiology, including muscle, neural, cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, digestive, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Laboratories include surgical procedures and experimental manipulations of live non-human vertebrate specimens to observe and record various physiological functions. Three hours lecture-discussion and one three-hour laboratory per week. Meets the Natural Science requirement of the Core Curriculum. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1124  and either CHM 1124  or CHM 1014 
    Recommended: BIO 3514  
    Corequisite: BIO 3524L
    Offered on campus Spring semester
  
  •  

    BIO 3614 Virology

    Four hours (On Campus)
    A study of the structure, classification, life cycle, and pathogenesis of viruses, and the immune response to virus infections of host organisms. Human viruses will be emphasized in the lecture. Viruses will be studied as pathogens and as tools for biomedicine and biological discovery. Labs focus on methods and experimental approaches for virus detection, isolation, and purification using modern techniques of biochemistry, cell, and molecular biology. Three hours lecture-discussion and one three-hour laboratory per week. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1124  and CHM 1134  
    Corequisite: BIO 3614L
    Offered on campus Fall semester (even-numbered years)
  
  •  

    BIO 4103 Bioethics

    Three hours (On Campus)
    A comparison of secular and Christian approaches to biomedical, environmental, and research ethics. Utilizes a highly interactive format to examine contemporary issues related to the beginning and end of human life, stem cells, cloning, genetic testing and manipulation, distribution of health care, experimentation on animal and human subjects, and care of the environment. Three hours of lecture-discussion per week.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus Spring semester (even-numbered years)
  
  •  

    BIO 4121 Selected Topics: Biology

    One hour (On Campus)
    Topics are chosen from areas of life science such as anatomy, biotechnology, cell biology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, histology, marine biology, microscopy, molecular biology, and physiology. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus Fall semester (odd-numbered years)
  
  •  

    BIO 4122 Selected Topics: Biology

    Two hours (On Campus)
    Topics are chosen from areas of life science such as anatomy, biotechnology, cell biology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, histology, marine biology, microscopy, molecular biology, and physiology. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus Fall semester (odd-numbered years)
  
  •  

    BIO 4123 Selected Topics: Biology

    Three hours (On Campus)
    Topics are chosen from areas of life science such as anatomy, biotechnology, cell biology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, histology, marine biology, microscopy, molecular biology, and physiology. May be repeated for credit when content differs.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus Fall semester (odd-numbered years)
  
  •  

    BIO 4124 Selected Topics: Biology

    Four hours (On Campus)
    Topics are chosen from areas of life science such as anatomy, biotechnology, cell biology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, histology, marine biology, microscopy, molecular biology, and physiology. May be repeated for credit when content differs. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Corequisite: BIO 4124L
    Offered on campus Fall semester (odd-numbered years)
  
  •  

    BIO 4220 Biological Research

    No credit (On Campus)
    Field- and/or laboratory-based research projects in an area of biology of interest to the student and supervising faculty. Also offered for credit for up to the maximum number of research hours allowed for majors in Biology or Biochemistry. BIO 4220 is only for REU experiences at other institutions. May be repeated. Graded ’S’ or ‘U’.

    Prerequisite: instructor consent
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
  
  •  

    BIO 4221 Biological Research

    One hour (On Campus)
    Field- and/or laboratory-based research projects in an area of biology of interest to the student and supervising faculty. May be repeated for credit for up to the maximum number of research hours allowed for majors in Biology or Biochemistry.  An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: instructor consent
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
  
  •  

    BIO 4222 Biological Research

    Two hours (On Campus)
    Field- and/or laboratory-based research projects in an area of biology of interest to the student and supervising faculty. May be repeated for credit for up to the maximum number of research hours allowed for majors in Biology or Biochemistry. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: instructor consent
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
  
  •  

    BIO 4223 Biological Research

    Three hours (On Campus)
    Field- and/or laboratory-based research projects in an area of biology of interest to the student and supervising faculty. May be repeated for credit for up to the maximum number of research hours allowed for majors in Biology or Biochemistry. An additional fee may be associated with this course.

    Prerequisite: instructor consent
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
  
  •  

    BIO 4310 Biology Internship

    No credit (On Campus)
    Practical experience in a biology-related field through work in industry, a non-profit organization, or a government agency. Internships may be paid, unpaid, or stipend-based. Graded ‘S’ or ‘U’.

    Prerequisite: junior standing
    Offered on campus Fall and Spring semesters
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3714 Lake Ecology and Management

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Field study of lakes and other freshwater systems with applications to planning and management. Includes an introduction to limnology and investigation of representative lakes, streams and wetlands of the region and compares the North American Great Lakes with the other great lakes of the world and their stewardship. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 302 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144 , BIO 2184  and CHM 1134 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3724 Field Botany

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Field and lab identification, systematics, natural history and ecology of vascular plants as components of natural communities and their relationships to ecological features, including stratification, history, plant zonation, adaptation and animal interactions are examined. Taxonomic relationships of plant families and higher groups are covered. Project or plant collection required. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 311 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3734 Animal Ecology

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Interrelationships between animals and their biotic and physical environments, emphasizing animal population dynamics in old growth pine forests and bogs. This field-intensive course centers on the ecology of northern Michigan fauna from a stewardship perspective.  Included are individual student projects. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 321 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3744 Aquatic Biology

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Ecology, identification, systematics, culture, and care of aquatic plants and animals, and adaptations to freshwater environments as determined by direct investigation in lakes, ponds, bogs, marshes, streams and in the laboratory. The course assesses human impacts on aquatic species and ecosystems, presents procedures for the stewardship of aquatic habitats, and introduces aquatic restoration ecology. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 322 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3754 Wildlife Ecology

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Ecology, conservation, and stewardship of wildlife and their habitats.  Includes examination of growth and structure of populations, environmental and human social factors affecting wildlife communities, and theories and applications of wildlife conservation. Set in the context of the historical development of the field from management to ecology to the land ethic of Leopold. Includes management and stewardship of non-game and endangered species, and long-term prospects of wildlife in changing environmental, climatic and social contexts. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 345 course. 

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3764 Field Techniques in Wetlands

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    A comprehensive overview of wetland ecosystem processes, values, legislation and quantification. Students will learn to evaluate and quantify soils, hydrologic status and vegetation in a variety of wetland ecosystems including bogs, emergent marshes, forested wetlands and wetlands converted for agriculture and to apply standard tools developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers and Michigan Department of Environmental Quality to assess wetland extent and habitat  quality. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 358 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3774 Field Biology in Spring

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    A field-based introduction to the natural history of northern Michigan and its plants and animals including their field identification, field biology, behavior and landscape context, with a focus on spring activity of biological communities. This course provides prospective teachers and naturalists with an opportunity to investigate the natural history in this very active time of year. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during mid-May to early June. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 361 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3784 Insect Ecology of Streams, Forests and Fields

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Life history, behavior and ecology of terrestrial and aquatic insects and their roles in pollination, herbivory, predation, agroecosystems, disease and vector epidemiology, invasion ecology, soil ecology, biodiversity and freshwater ecology.  Practical applications include study of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches to reduce negative impacts of pest species in agricultural, structural and medical settings while preserving biodiversity and ecosystem functionality. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during mid-May to early June. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 365 course. 

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3794 Restoration Ecology

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Ecological principles for ecosystem restoration and applications for restoring degraded and endangered species. Field studies include analysis of restoration and rehabilitation work with the Kirtland’s warbler, an officially designated wild river, coastal dunes, kettle-hole bogs, deforested lands, degraded residential and farming sites and abandoned oil wells. A practical field lab is included in which techniques are applied to a specific site. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 482 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3804 Conservation Biology

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Principles of conservation biology with applications to sustainable human society and biospheric integrity. An integrative approach to biology and society that interrelates population biology, ecological principles, biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem functions and human society in the context of biospheric degradation. The course develops a stewardship perspective rooted in biological principles and directed at conservation of plant and animal species, biotic communities, ecosystems and human society, including topics in human development, poverty and economic growth. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol/Geog 471 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3814 Marine Mammals

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Biology, behavior, ecology, identification and conservation of the marine mammals of the Pacific Northwest. This course examines habitats of marine mammals in Puget Sound and the Salish Sea, with special attention to diving physiology, social behavior, and communications of whales and seals. The course aims to develop a stewardship perspective rooted in biological principles and directed at the global conservation of marine mammals and their ecosystems. Special attention is given to their use by cultures of the region and the relation of such use to current controversies in management of marine mammals. Offered at Au Sable - Pacific Rim in Washington state during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 359 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Recommended: BIO 3514  and/or BIO 3524  
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3824 Forest Ecology

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    The Pacific Northwest is home to towering lowland temperate rain forests, montane forests on the slopes of the Cascades, and subalpine parkland near treeline in the Olympics. Join us as we study the abiotic environment, species interactions and ecosystem processes in these contrasting forest ecosystems. Research approaches relevant to forest systems will be introduced. Quantitative skills including data collection, management and basic analysis will be emphasized. Offered at Au Sable - Pacific Rim in Washington state during summer.  Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 368 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3834 Alpine Ecology

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Ecology of the mountains of the Pacific Northwest, with particular attention to adaptation of plant and animal life to montane climates and altitudes, and analysis and interpretation of altitudinal zonation of biotic communities with applications to latitudinal biogeography. The course also examines physiological responses of organisms to reduced oxygen levels, low temperatures and high altitude radiation regimes. Field work includes on-site studies in the Olympic Mountains of the Olympic Peninsula. Offered at Au Sable - Pacific Rim in Washington state during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 478 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    BIOAS 3844 Marine Biology

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Biology of marine plants and animals in the field. The focus of the course is on intertidal life and marine ecology in oceanic and geophysical context. Includes trophic dynamic relationships of eel grass communities and the intertidal zone, workings of the island systems of Puget Sound, ecological roles of sea birds and fishes, population and community structure dynamics, exploitation and oceanic microbialization, and biogeochemical processes and their linkages with the biosphere. Marine stewardship and effects of human activity on the marine environment are examined in all course components. Offered at Au Sable - Pacific Rim in Washington state during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol 318 course.

    Prerequisite: BIO 1144  
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    ENVAS 3714 Land Resources

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    A systems-level perspective on land forms and ecosystems.  Includes analysis and interpretation of field data, remote-sensing data derived from satellites and aircraft and geographic information systems (GIS), including field trips to and analysis of forests, wetlands, lakeshores and rivers. Includes application to policy and land use planning. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol/Geol/Geog 301 course.

    Prerequisites: BIO 1144  and BIO 2184  
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    ENVAS 3724 Environmental Law and Policy

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Analysis of the policy making process at local, national and international scales with examination of environmental policy challenges including climate change, resource management and energy development. Students will interact with regional policy-makers and land managers in the field to consider linkages between policy and science and ways for science to inform the policy-making process. Environmental ethics, environmental justice and environmental advocacy will also be considered. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable EnvSt 310 course.

    Prerequisite: GSC 2003 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    ENVAS 3734 Environmental Chemistry

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Principles analysis and impact of chemical movement and distribution-both natural and human-induced-in natural environments focusing primarily on the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Sampling and analytical methods are included for water, soil and air. Work is conducted both on site in natural habitats and the laboratory. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Chem 332 course.

    Prerequisites: CHM 1134  and CHM 3134 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    ENVAS 3744 Watersheds in Global Development

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Principles of watershed ecology. Includes principles and practice of community-based water monitoring and watershed management for developing and developed countries and techniques of data access, analysis and interpretation using an online relational database and data-to-action strategies. Designed for students in science and public policy, including students interested in missions and development and agencies involved in environmental assessment and community development. Includes EPA certification with demonstrated proficiency in watershed stewardship skills. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol/Geog 355 course.

    Prerequisite: GSC 2003 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    ENVAS 3754 Environmental Applications for Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Introduction to the theory and application of spatial analysis for environmental conservation and planning using geographic information system (GIS) technology in the context of real world conservation problems. This course combines instruction in GPS field data collection; ArcGIS use for storage, analysis, interpretation and presentation of spatial data; and remote sensing techniques and their integration with GIS applications. Examines theories of environmental planning at regional and landscape levels and their importance for conservation.  Instruction in these skills will be integrated around an environmental project applying GIS techniques to actual conservation problems associated with protecting or restoring degraded environments. Offered at Au Sable - Great Lakes in Michigan during summer. Corresponds to Au Sable Biol/EnvSt/Geog 362 course.

    Prerequisite: GSC 2003 
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
  
  •  

    ENVAS 3814 Ecological Agriculture

    Four hours (Au Sable)
    Ecological Agriculture focuses on how agricultural systems can be developed to better resemble natural ecosystems to achieve multiple outcomes: food for communities, vibrant economies and healthy ecosystems.  Focus is on learning agricultural principles that can be applied in rural, urban, temperate and tropical settings. Issues of justice and public policy are also discussed. This course employs a discussion format both in classroom and field settings.  It grapples with difficult practical and ethical problems and issues that require interdisciplinary analysis. Offered at Au Sable - Pacific Rim in Washington state during summer.  Corresponds to Au Sable Biol/Agric/Geog 303 course.

    Prerequisite: GSC 2003  
    Offered at the Au Sable Institute Summer semester
 

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