Students Subject to the Catalog Provisions
All students are subject to the provisions of the catalog which was in effect at the time of their first enrollment at John Brown University, with the exception of charges for tuition, etc., which apply only for a specified period of time. However, students may change to a later catalog with approval of their advisor and dean or division chair by completing a Change of Catalog form in the Registrar’s Office. Students may submit a Change of Catalog form until they have completed 75 hours. After that point, no further catalog changes will be permitted except in case of extended absence, as described in Graduation Requirements after Extended Absence.
Changes in Requirements and Regulations
The university reserves the right to make modifications in policies, procedures, and regulations: e.g., grading system, transfer of credit, guidelines for degree requirements, housing regulations and charges, tuition and fees, and admission standards, and to make such modifications applicable to any or all currently-enrolled students. When modifications occur, sensitivity to reasonable dates of implementation and appropriate categories of currently-enrolled students affected will be exercised. Students will be notified of such changes through the advisors, written notices, and campus publications.
The basic unit of course credit is the semester hour. One semester hour of credit normally represents participation by the student in the activities of one fifty-minute class period per week for 15 weeks together with adequate preparation through the use of approximately two hours outside of class for each period in class. Where additional supervised time is required such as for laboratories or listening sessions, an extended period of two to three hours may replace one regular class period. One hour of practicum credit requires weekly involvement of three to five hours, depending on the nature of the assignment.
John Brown University’s school year comprises two semesters, with the fall term completed before the December holiday break. Each semester consists of 73 days of instruction followed by a four-day examination period. Commencement exercises follow each semester, scheduled on the Saturday after final examination week. In additional to the fall and spring semester, JBU offers traditional undergraduate courses in a summer term starting on the Monday following spring commencement.
Orientation activities for all new students begin before fall registration and may continue into the semester. The goal of the Orientation Program is to help each student make a smooth transition to college life at JBU.
A full-time student is one who is enrolled for 12 or more semester hours.
Classification of Students
A student will be classified as a sophomore when at least 30 semester hours of course work have been successfully completed; junior-60 hours; senior-90 hours.
All undergraduate students are assigned an academic advisor in connection to their chosen major. Students who are undeclared are advised by an advisor who works solely with undeclared students until such time as the student declares a major. Students are responsible for seeing their advisor for schedule planning each semester as well as for determining a graduation plan and other major-related issues. Advisors will help guide students in planning, but are not responsible for students’ meeting graduation requirements. This responsibility lies with each individual student.
John Brown University offers a summer term which begins the Monday after spring commencement. Students may earn as many as six credit hours, with most available courses satisfying requirements in the Core Curriculum. Summer tuition for undergraduate work is one-half the regular credit hour rate.
The credit applying toward a degree may include up to a total of 30 semester hours earned by means of alternative activities, such as credit by exam and credit for prior learning or credit for military training. In addition to taking elective courses, there are several non-traditional credit options available for students to earn credit toward a JBU Traditional Undergraduate degree, including:
Credit by Examination
Students may earn credit through selected nationally recognized standardized tests. Such tests include the College Level Examination Program (CLEP), and certain other tests approved by the American Council on Education (ACE).
If a departmental course equivalency exam exists for a course, qualified students may earn credit by passing the examination with a grade of ‘B’ or better. Students interested in taking the equivalency exam should obtain a departmental course equivalency exam request form from the Registrar’s Office, obtain approval for taking the equivalency exam from the head of the department in which the course is offered, pay the equivalency exam fee in the cashier’s office, and then schedule the exam with the head of the department. The head of the department will forward the departmental course equivalency exam form to the Registrar’s Office. Where appropriate, credit for the course will be added to the transcript with a grade of CE (credit by examination). No fee, other than the initial equivalency exam fee, must be paid to receive institutional credit.
Credit for Prior Learning (CPL)
The university recognizes that collegiate-level learning may occur outside the college/ university classroom and has established specific procedures and policies for evaluating and granting credits for such learning. CPL may be earned only for documented and currently held learning, and is not granted simply for experience. This learning may have resulted from personal study, travel, work experience, workshops and seminars, military training, or other professional or vocational experiences. The guidelines recommended by the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning will generally be followed, except where they might conflict with existing policies of the university. Students are encouraged to develop a portfolio of prior learning. JBU assesses that learning according to standards set by the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning. Some of these standards are:
- Credit should be awarded only for learning, and not for experience.
- College credit should be awarded only for college-level learning.
- Credit should be awarded only for learning that has a balance, appropriate to the subject, between theory and practical application.
- The determination of competence levels and of credit awards must be made by appropriate subject matter and academic experts.
- Credit should be appropriate to the academic context in which it is accepted.
Credit for Prior Learning provides JBU with a means of assessing learning associated with previous life-learning situations. Visit with your admissions counselor or the Registrar’s Office for more information about non-traditional credit options.
Availability of Courses
Accompanying the description of each course in the back section of this catalog is an indication of the semester in which the course is to be offered. This data is subject to occasional modification. Accordingly, the university reserves the right to withdraw, with reasonable notice, any course offering for a particular semester.
Online courses are offered to traditional undergraduate students through the JBU Online Undergraduate Program. Each course is eight weeks, with assignments due weekly. The student will pay all traditional undergraduate per-credit tuition charges for online courses. Only one 3-hour course is permitted per eight-week term (two classes per semester in different terms) and registration for online courses is subject to available seating. Students may not add these courses on or after the first day of class due to the compressed nature.
To take an online class, the student must have a 2.0 cumulative GPA or higher and must be taking a minimum of 9 hours on-ground classes, unless special permission is granted by the Registrar.
To register, contact the Associate Registrar if you are a current student.
Independent study courses are those in which students do not meet in a typical classroom setting but study independently under the regular supervision of a full-time faculty member. The topic of study may be an area of special interest normally outside of the existing curriculum. A student must complete an application for Independent Study form that can be picked up at the Registrar’s Office. Approval must be provided by the professor supervising the independent study and the dean of the college or chair of the division in which the course resides.
Only students who are in good standing academically (2.0 or higher cumulative GPA) and have no current incompletes on their record may take an Independent Study. Only one Independent Study per semester is allowed.
A non-refundable fee of $129 per semester hour will be charged to the student. In some special circumstances, the college dean or division chair may waive the fee. The student will pay all normal per-credit tuition charges for hours below 12 or above 18 hours.
Prerequisites and Corequisites
Students are not permitted to enroll for courses for which they have not completed all prerequisites. A prerequisite course must have been completed with an acceptable passing grade before enrollment in the given course is permitted. A corequisite is a course in which a student must be enrolled and satisfactorily participating simultaneously to the given course. The instructor of a course can waive a prerequisite for a specific student.
Required Enrollment in Specific Core Curriculum Courses
All regularly enrolled students must complete both the freshman level Core Curriculum Bible courses by the end of their first two years of attendance.
All regularly enrolled students except those in associate degree programs must enroll for EGL 1013 and EGL 1023 during their first two semesters of enrollment. However, some students are required to complete English as a Second Language or EGL 1003 Basic Writing before enrolling in EGL 1013 . All new students must complete the Gateway Seminar in Christian Scholarship during their first semester of attendance.
Maximum Course Load
The normal maximum semester load is 18 credit hours, but the student’s grade point average affects the limit for the next term. A full-time student who earns a 3.0 GPA during a semester at JBU will be permitted to enroll for an increased load. First-time freshmen students are limited to a maximum of 18 hours during their first semester.
||Next Semester Maximum
|Sem 3.0 to 3.24
||19 semester hours
|Sem 3.25 to 3.49
||20 semester hours
|Sem 3.5 or better
||21 semester hours
|Cum Below 2.0 (Academic Probation)
||15 semester hours
Enrolling for any credit hours beyond 18 in a semester will incur additional tuition charges at one-half the regular per-hour rate, regardless of prior grade point average. Enrollment for more than 21 hours is permitted only upon approval of a petition to the Dean of Academic Services. The maximum summer term load is six credit hours. A student whose grade point average for the previous semester was 3.25 or better may petition to enroll for additional hours.
Any student who enrolls after the close of the regular registration period may be subject to limitations in the course load. No student is permitted to enroll for the semester after the end of the tenth day of classes.
Students may register for courses on a non-credit or audit basis, provided the proper procedure is followed, either at initial registration for the semester or by official change of registration prior to the stated deadlines. The names of such students will be entered on the class roll, and the class appears in the student’s academic record, but without credit and with final grade of ‘AU’ or ‘U’. It is the responsibility of the student to obtain a statement of grading criteria for satisfactory participation from the instructor. Tuition is charged at one-half of the rate of for-credit registrations and subject to the same regulations.
The last day to add a course under ‘audit’ status and the last day to change a course from ‘audit’ to ‘credit’ status is the last day to add a course. The last day to change from ‘credit’ to ‘audit’ status is the last day to drop a course.
Adding and Dropping Courses
Courses may be added after initial registration, provided the procedure is completed by the close of the second week of classes. Courses dropped by the approved procedure before the end of the eighth week of classes will not appear on the permanent record. Non-completion of a course thereafter will result in a letter grade based upon the student’s performance relative to the required work for the complete course.
A student may petition for permission to withdraw from all course work for a semester after the last date to drop a course. Such a petition should be directed to the Dean of Academic Services. Every student withdrawing from the university before the end of a semester is required to obtain from the Student Development Office an application for withdrawal, have it properly signed by the necessary officials and return it to the Registrar’s Office. Failure to execute such an application may result in refusal to grant any possible refunds to the student.
In the event of withdrawal from school, courses are posted on the transcript with each showing a grade of ‘WP’ (withdrew, passing) or ‘WF’ (withdrew, failing). No credit is earned for the term.
An official transcript of a student’s academic record may be obtained by submission of a written request to the Registrar’s Office, provided the student has made satisfactory arrangements with the Business and Financial Aid Offices with respect to financial obligations. Transcripts are not released unless the student grants permission through a signed statement.
The first official transcript is issued without charge; a $5 charge is incurred for each transcript thereafter.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA) extends to all former and presently enrolled students at John Brown University the right of access to certain educational records maintained by the institution. Student rights include (a) inspection and review, (b) explanation or interpretation of contents, (c) duplication of the record at a standard fee, and (d) a formal hearing, if necessary, to challenge the contents of any such record.
A student must be registered for a class and on the official roster in order to attend. This includes students who are attending under audit status.
Attendance at and participation in all class sessions, except for times when students are absent for reasons beyond their control, is regarded as essential. Class activities are planned for the benefit of all students.
Online Course Attendance
Because of the intensive nature of the curriculum and the participatory structure of course work in these programs, it is imperative that students attend every scheduled class and participate in each week’s activity for courses delivered online.
For all online classes, students are expected to login to the Blackboard module regularly (at least 3 days a week) to check the syllabus and work schedule, and complete all assignments for the week. The due date for assignments may not be extended for purposes of achieving attendance. In eight-week online courses, being counted absent for three sessions will result in a grade of “F”. An “absence” for online courses is defined in two ways (either of which will incur an absence).
- not turning in any assigned work for the week;
- not demonstrating evidence of reading assigned chapters or viewing assigned videos, tutorials, or other media posted by the professor. Evidence includes posting to discussion forums, responding to other students’ posts, and generally logging in to participate and engage in course materials. Students are responsible for providing written evidence by email (with any supporting documentation attached) to substantiate “authorized absences.”
Online Late Assignment Policy: Students are required to submit all assignments when due. Homework is designed to prepare students for class collaboration. On a case-by-case basis, instructors may accept late work for partial credit at their own discretion. If late work is accepted it is subject to a 10% reduction per day late. In no event shall homework be accepted for credit if it is not submitted within seven days of the original due date (before the next class meeting).
Online courses will continue as scheduled regardless of weather.
Students are expected to display classroom and online behavior that is appropriate to a Christian university. A professor may remove a student from a class if, in the professor’s judgment, the student displays behavior that is uncivil, defiant, or otherwise disruptive to the classroom learning environment. Online postings require polite behavior; evidenced in font, word use, and grammar that is indicative of college level communication. Students dismissed from a class may not return to the class without the permission of the professor. Online postings require polite behavior; evidenced in font, word use, and grammar that is indicative of college level communication.
Results of Failure to Attend Class
A grade of ‘F’ is given for any course in which a student has missed half or more of the class meetings, whether the absences are excused or unexcused, unless the student has completed withdrawal from the class before the stated deadline. An absence is recorded for each class missed by a student, including the first meeting of a class following registration, regardless of the reason for the absence.
The responsibility for attending class rests with the student.
Excused Absences. Students will be allowed to make up for full credit work missed because of an excused absence. Under the following circumstances an absence will be excused:
- Death or serious illness in the immediate family.
- Participation in intercollegiate athletic events.
- Class field trips which are required as class assignments.*
- Club trips which are designated as educational in nature.*
- Trips sponsored or sanctioned by the university authorities as university business.
- Trips required by Armed Services or the Veterans Administration.
- Local emergencies requiring the immediate attention of certain students.
- Other reasons which are acceptable to the instructor.
Absence due to illness of the student does not necessarily qualify as excused. Each instructor has the prerogative to establish policy on this issue. The policy is to be clearly stated in the syllabus at the beginning of the semester. Other absences are considered unexcused.
Procedure for Excused Absences. Although the instructor is obligated to allow the student to make up for full credit work missed because of an excused absence, such credit must be established through the initiative of the student in accomplishing the work to the full satisfaction of the instructor. Prior notice is expected for any known activities which will interfere with class attendance.
It is the responsibility of the student to notify the professor in advance of any class activity that will interfere with class attendance. Such notification must be made in a manner consistent with the stated expectations in the professor’s course syllabus.
* Professors and club sponsors must propose educational trips to the Dean of Undergraduate Studies for approval as excused absences. Educational trips should be planned in such a way as to minimize potential conflicts with other classes as much as possible.
Unexcused Absences. Faculty members are neither obligated nor expected to permit a student to make up work missed because of unexcused absences, including unexcused absences for which no penalty is assessed in accordance with the attendance policy. If a student is allowed to make up such work, full credit may not be allowed.
The number of unexcused absences in a course may be used as a factor in determining a student’s grade. It is the obligation of the instructor to explain the policy at the beginning of the course. If the student attends more than half of the class meetings and thus is eligible for credit, the attendance factor may not exceed 25 percent of the total grade basis in the course.
Non-Attendance Resulting in Withdrawal
Except in case of extenuating circumstances, students who do not attend any class for ten consecutive days may be withdrawn from John Brown University for non-attendance. Courses will not be recorded if the withdrawal occurs before the eighth week of the semester. Students will have a grade of ‘WP’ (withdrawn, passing) or ‘WF’ (withdrawn, failing) recorded if they are withdrawn after the seventh week of the semester.
It is the responsibility of the student to contact instructors, advisor, Registrar’s Office, Business Office, Financial Aid, and Student Development if extenuating circumstances exist.
Chapel is an essential part of fulfilling John Brown University’s basic mission of providing a “Christ-centered higher education” and therefore, attendance is a requirement for all students (see Student Handbook). The purpose of chapel is to gather the university family in the context of worship to better know, love, and glorify God, to gain His perspective on our learning, and to grow together as a Christ-centered community while committing ourselves to serving in the world as Jesus’ disciples. Chapel is not a replacement for participation in a local church, and students are encouraged to find a home church while at JBU. Students are also encouraged to take part in the various ministry and discipleship opportunities provided through the university Student Ministries Office.
Academic Integrity Policy
As a Christian institution of higher education, John Brown University seeks to maintain the highest standards of academic integrity. Violations of these standards will result in substantial penalties. Violations and their definitions are as follows:
- Plagiarism: Submitting as part or all of one’s own work material that is copied or paraphrased from another source, including online sources, without the proper acknowledgment of that source. Examples include: failing to cite a reference, failing to use quotation marks where appropriate, misrepresenting another’s work as your own, etc.
- Cheating: Using unauthorized material or study aids for assistance on examinations or other academic work. Examples include: looking at a peer’s exam, altering a graded exam, using notes without permission, etc.
- Fabrication: Submitting altered or contrived information in any academic assignment. Examples include: falsifying data, text material, or sources.
- Facilitating academic dishonesty: Helping another student violate this policy. Examples include: allowing one’s work to be copied, working together on an assignment where collaboration is not allowed, doing work for another student.
However, the primary responsibility for knowledge of and compliance with this policy rests with the student.
Faculty Action Regarding Violations of Academic Integrity
All violations of the academic integrity policy will be reported to the Dean, who will maintain a file on student offenses.
First offense: In the first case of dishonesty, the faculty member will normally give the student a zero for the assignment or test on which the student has been dishonest. Faculty members are free to impose more severe penalties if such penalties are announced in the course syllabus.
Second offense: A second violation of the integrity policy in the same course or in any other course will result in an “F” in the course.
Third offense: Any further violations of the integrity policy may result in suspension or dismissal from the university.
A student who feels that he or she has been unfairly accused or unjustly treated may appeal to the Dean.
Indication of each student’s progress is reported regularly by instructors. The grading scale used as a basis for letter grades is established by the instructor of each course.
|Grade Points per Semester Hour (effective Fall 1999)
The following are not included in grade point average:
I - Incomplete work
S - Satisfactory
U - Unsatisfactory
NC - No credit earned
WP - Withdrew, passing
WF - Withdrew, failing
W - Withdrew
An incomplete (‘I’) grade must be made up within 30 days after the official grade reporting date. After the 30 days, the incomplete grade will be changed to a grade of ‘F’. In extenuating circumstances, the instructor may request an extension date from the Dean of Academic Services. An ‘F’ grade that results due to a grade of incomplete ‘I’ may be changed upon approval of the instructor and the Dean of Undergraduate Studies.
When an ‘F’ grade has been received (other than an incomplete ‘I’ grade changed to ‘F’), credit cannot be secured for work without repetition of the entire course.
Internships and practicums may be evaluated using standard letter grades. However, because of the subjective nature of the experiences, grades of ‘S’ or ‘U’ normally are assigned. Credit hours accrue in either case.
A student may repeat any course on his or her academic record with prior approval of the department and the registrar, with the understanding that all courses and grades will remain on the permanent record. However, only one taking of the course may contribute hours to the total for graduation, and only the highest grade received will be included in the calculation of the student’s grade point average. If the student receives permission and renews a grade by means of transferring an equivalent course from another institution, the completed course is posted with a grade of ‘CR’, and any prior attempts are excluded from graduation hours and the grade point average.
Full-time students attaining certain standards of scholastic achievement are placed on the President’s or the Dean’s List of Distinguished Students at the end of each semester, and attention is drawn to them through various media. To qualify for the Dean’s list, the student must have at least 3.4 term grade point average, and at least 3.8 term grade point average for the President’s list.
Upon completion of the associate’s or bachelor’s degree, each graduate who has attained a cumulative grade point average of 3.6 or above is recognized with an appropriate degree honor. Eligibility is contingent upon completion of at least 60 semester hours of graded course work at John Brown University. Graduation honors are indicated on the diploma, and by the wearing of an appropriate medal on the gown during the commencement exercises.
Cum Laude-cumulative grade point average at least 3.6
Magna Cum Laude-cumulative grade point average at least 3.8
Summa Cum Laude-cumulative grade point average at least 3.9
Students who have between 39 and 59 semester hours of graded course work at John Brown University and have a grade point average of 3.8 or higher will graduate “with distinction.”
University Honors Degree
Each student who has successfully completed twenty-one hours of honors courses and maintained a cumulative GPA of 3.5 (or a cumulative Honors GPA of 3.75), as outlined under Honors Scholars Program, will be granted a diploma certifying that they have earned a university Honors degree. Such graduates will be awarded stoles and identified in the commencement program.
Vera and Spencer Bartlett Respect Awards
These awards, in memory of Vera and Spencer Bartlett, are presented each spring to students who are judged to best exemplify the greatest respect for God, for the United States of America, and for other people. To be eligible, a student must be a junior continuing into their senior year, a citizen of the United States, and must have average grades or better.
Walton International Scholarship Program
Education of young people shapes a nation. Soviet leaders recognized this fact and during the mid-20th century recruited many promising young scholars from third-world nations to receive free education in universities of the Eastern Bloc. The offer was eagerly accepted, and the result was that these formally educated students-their thinking now shaped by ideals of Marxism, socialism, and atheism-returned to their homelands to rise to positions of political and economic leadership.
American entrepreneur Sam Walton decried this pattern and took it upon himself to provide an alternative for these bright individuals: Come to the United States for training in economic freedom, individual responsibility, and faith. To accomplish this goal, he established programs at John Brown University and two other private liberal arts colleges in Arkansas, by which are provided 60 annual scholarships at each school for students from Central America and Mexico. Funded independently of all other university aid programs, Walton grants cover tuition, room and board, and other associated expenses. One stipulation of the scholarship agreement is that upon completion of their training, all recipients must return to their home countries for a period of time equal to that of their studies in the U.S.
Over 1,200 students from Central America and Mexico have received the scholarship, and a very high percentage have completed bachelor’s degrees and returned home, where the value of an American education is unmistakable. John Brown University’s graduates of the Walton Scholarship Program have attained noteworthy positions in business, engineering, politics, computer science, journalism, education, and ministry. Mr. Walton’s dream is being fulfilled.
- A full-time student with a cumulative grade point average (CGPA) less than 2.0 will be placed on probation the following semester.
- The maximum enrollment per semester for any student on academic probation is 15 semester hours. Students should understand that such limited enrollment may lengthen the time required to meet graduation requirements.
- A student whose CGPA is still below 2.0 after being on probation for two successive semesters, or a student with less than a 1.0 semester GPA, will be suspended unless a petition for re-enrollment is approved by the Committee on Scholastic Petitions.
- A student may enroll after one semester of academic suspension if a petition is approved by the Committee on Scholastic Petitions.
- A student who is permitted to re-enroll after academic suspension may continue to re-enroll if satisfactory progress is being made toward a 2.0 CGPA as determined by the Committee on Scholastic Petitions.
- A student on Academic Probation may remain eligible for some types of financial aid, if standards for Satisfactory Academic Progress are met.
Academic Appeal Process
Occasionally a student may wish to appeal an academic action such as a grade, graduation requirement, or a withdrawal penalty. Such appeals should be made in writing to the appropriate dean. In most cases the student should first request the support of their academic advisor, department head, dean or division chair.
Graduation and Commencement
Application for Graduation
An application for graduation form is provided online as part of the pre-registration process for students registering for their final semester in residence before completion of degree requirements. This application provides information regarding the graduation fee, exit assessment requirements, and a final check of the student’s name as it is to appear on the diploma and in the commencement program.
Participation in Commencement Exercises
Degree candidates may participate in commencement exercises only upon completion of all degree requirements no later than the last day of the semester. Any course work in progress at other institutions must be completed during terms ending no later than one week following JBU commencement. If grades for the transfer work will not be reported at least five weeks prior to commencement, the student must complete and return to the registrar a Commencement Participation Approval form, available in the Associate Registrar’s Office. Students may petition the Dean of Undergraduate Studies for permission to participate in commencement with courses pending as long as they have a plan to complete any pending course work within a few months of commencement. Students enrolled at JBU who complete their degree during their final semester of attendance are only eligible to participate in the commencement ceremony held at the end of that semester.
For students who leave JBU with unmet degree requirements, eligibility to participate in commencement is limited to the commencement at the end of the following semester. Students not enrolled at JBU during the semester in which they plan to graduate must contact the Registrar’s Office in writing during the first two weeks of the semester, declaring their intention to participate in commencement. Failure to do so may result in the student not being listed in the commencement program. Furthermore, participation eligibility is dependent upon compliance with all of the deadlines posted on the JBU commencement web site.
Graduation Requirements after Extended Absence
In general, a student is required to graduate under the requirements of a catalog which is current at the time of graduation. Current catalogs are those dated for the year in which a student’s degree is conferred and for the four preceding years.
A student who, after an extended absence, desires to complete graduation requirements under a catalog which was in effect while the student was in residence at JBU is subject to the following:
- The student must meet the requirements in the major field as listed in a current catalog completing in the five years prior to graduation a minimum of six semester hours in the major field (as approved by the major department).
- If general education requirements were completed under the older catalog, the general education requirements of a current catalog are considered met. In areas (biblical studies, social studies, natural science, etc.) where not all general education requirements were completed, current catalog requirements must be met.
- A student completing one of the teacher education curricula must meet Arkansas certification requirements in effect at the time of graduation.
- All provisions of the residence requirement must be met.
Fresh Start Policy
A student who re-enrolls in the university after an absence of seven or more years and completes one full-time semester or term with a 2.0 GPA or higher may request a “Fresh Start” by petitioning the Dean of Undergraduate Studies. This petition must be made within one semester following the first semester in which a 2.0 or greater is earned. If the petition is approved, none of the credits earned prior to the absence will be included in the GPA calculation and only those with a ‘C’ or higher may be used to fulfill graduation requirements. In effect, the Fresh Start treats early JBU work as transfer work. After the “Fresh Start” is applied to a student’s transcript, those courses with a ‘C’ or higher will be designated by ‘CR’ and those with a ‘C-’ or lower will be designated by ‘NC’.